Combating Corruption (2023)

Combating Corruption

The World Bank Groupconsiders corruption a major challenge to its twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40 percent of people in developing countries.

Corruption has a disproportionate impact on the poor and most vulnerable, increasing costs and reducing access to services, including health, education and justice. Corruption in the procurement of drugs and medical equipment drives up costs and can lead to sub-standard or harmful products. The human costs of counterfeit drugs and vaccinations on health outcomes and the life-long impacts on children far exceed the financial costs. Unofficial payments for services can have a particularly pernicious effect on poor people.

Empirical studies have shown that the poor pay the highest percentage of their income in bribes. Some studies have suggested that the poor may even be preyed upon since they are seen as powerless to complain. Every stolen or misdirected dollar, euro, peso, yuan, rupee, or ruble robs the poor of an equal opportunity in life and prevents governments from investing in theirhuman capital.

Corruption erodes trust in government and undermines the social contract. This is cause for concern across the globe, but particularly in contexts of fragility and violence, as corruption fuels and perpetuates the inequalities and discontent that lead to fragility, violent extremism, and conflict.

Corruption impedes investment, with consequent effects on growth and jobs. Countries capable of confronting corruption use their human and financial resources more efficiently, attract more investment, and grow more rapidly.

The World Bank Group recognizes that corruption comes in different forms. It might impact service delivery, such as when an official asks for bribes to perform routine services. Corruption might unfairly determine the winners of government contracts, with awards favoring friends, relatives, or business associates of government officials. Or it might come in the form of state capture, distorting how institutions work and who controls them, a form of corruption that is often the costliest in terms of overall economic impact. Each type of corruption is important and tackling all of them is critical to achieving progress and sustainable change.

(Video) How to combat corruption

Making inroads against corruption often requires determined efforts to overcome vested interests. Transparency and open governance are typically part of the story, but rarely the whole story. When popular disaffection with corruption and cronyism reaches a boiling point, the political rewards to addressing corruption can exceed the costs of upsetting interests.

Short of sweeping reform efforts, progress can be achieved through better and more open processes, professional accountability systems, and the use of the latest advanced technologies to capture, analyze, and share data to prevent, detect, and deter corrupt behavior.

The World Bank Group leverages innovative technologies to strengthen public sector performance and productivity, confront corruption and to help foster greater trust and accountability, particularly in more fragile environments.

Much of the world's costliest forms of corruption could not happen without institutions in wealthy nations: the private sector firms that give large bribes, the financial institutions that accept corrupt proceeds, and the lawyers, bankers, and accountants who facilitate corrupt transactions. Data on international financial flows shows that money is moving from poor to wealthy countries in ways that fundamentally undermine development.

Approach:

Corruption is a global problem that requires global solutions. The World Bank Group has been working to mitigate the pernicious effects of corruption in its client countries for more than 20 years.

The Bank Group works at the country, regional, and global levels to help build capable, transparent, and accountable institutions and design and implement anticorruption programs relying on the latest discourse and innovations. The World Bank Group’s work revolves around sustainability and changing outcomes by helping both state and non-state actors establish the competencies needed to implement policies and practices that improve results and strengthen public integrity.

Additionally, the World Bank Group works with the public and private sectors as well as civil society to support efforts to prevent corruption, improve remedies to address wrongdoing when it occurs as well as work towards improving behaviors, norms, and standards needed to sustain anticorruption efforts.

(Video) Fighting Corruption | Nikos Passas | TEDxAcademy

The World Bank Group has includedGovernance and Institutions as a theme in IDA19– its Fund for the Poorest Countries – in order to focus global attention on the issue.

Fighting corruption within World Bank Group-financed projects:

The World Bank Group's approach to fighting corruption combines a proactive policy of anticipating and managing risks in its own projects. The Bank Group subjects all potential projects to rigorous scrutiny and works with clients to reduce possible corruption risks that have been identified. The Bank Group’s independent Sanctions System includes theIntegrity Vice Presidency, which is responsible for investigating allegations of fraud and corruption in World Bank-funded projects. Public complaint mechanisms are built into projects to encourage and empower oversight, and projects are actively supervised during implementation.

When allegations of fraud and corruption are substantiated, companies involved in misconduct are debarred from engaging in any new World Bank Group-financed activity. Concerned governments receive the findings of World Bank Group investigations. To date, the World Bank Group has publicly debarred or otherwise sanctioned more than 1,000 firms and individuals.

In fiscal year 2020, the World Bank Group debarred or otherwise sanctioned 49 firms and individuals and recognized 72 cross-debarments from other multilateral development banks. At the end of fiscal year 2020, 372 entities have been sanctioned with conditional release, a process by which firms are afforded the opportunity to improve their internal compliance programs as part of their sanction.

Reaffirming commitment to helping countries address corruption

When approaching anticorruption at the country level, it is important to put in place institutional systems and incentives to prevent corruption from occurring in the first place. Prevention also calls for credible deterrence, relying on accountability and enforcement mechanisms sufficiently strong to send a message to potential wrongdoers of the potential cost of their misconduct. At the same time, we must recognize that the local political and social context influences both the level of corruption and the reform approaches likely to meet with success or failure.

The World Bank has recently launched a set of Anticorruption Initiatives to reaffirm its commitment to helping countries address corruption, addressing changes in globalization, technology, social science, and other factors. The Anticorruption Initiatives broaden the Bank’s focus beyond developing countries to also include financial centers, take on the politics of corruption more openly than before, harness new technologies to understand, address, and prevent corruption, and integrate the insights of behavioral social science.

COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in large scale emergency spending by governments, sometimes without adhering to the regular checks and balances. While speed is understandable, without proper controls it exposes governments to a variety of corruption risks that may undermine the effectiveness of their responses. The strains placed on the public sector in responding to the current situation present enormous opportunities for corruption to flourish. Corruption can lead to the theft, wastage, and misuse of scarce resources. It can also entrench elite privilege and inequality, undermining institutions of accountability with lasting consequences. A full description of the risks and the Bank’s policy advice to counteract them are set out in a policy note: ‘Ensuring Integrity in the Government’s Response to COVID-19’, part of a series of policy notes to assist governments in improving governance during the COVID-19 crisis.

(Video) Combating Corruption: The Role of Risk Assessment

As countries embark on a road to a more resilient and inclusive economy, policy makers face the challenge of reactivating the economy in the context of huge fiscal stress compounded by the accumulation of large amounts of debt. Prudent use of scarce resources in a transparent manner is critical. This presents an opportunity to build a clean, accountable and transparent government by introducing highest standards of integrity through plugging entry points that allow corruption to flourish. In the context of tight fiscal space over the coming years it is even more important than before to spend the billions of dollars lost to corruption on reviving the economy and ensuring that the poor and vulnerable groups who suffer disproportionately due to corruption are protected.

Recognizing that attempts to control corruption have brought important lessons, the World Bank Group released in September 2020 a global report drawing on case studies of various tools and approaches. Enhancing Government Effectiveness and Transparency: The Fight Against Corruption covers five key thematic areas: public procurement, infrastructure, state-owned enterprises, customs administration and service delivery, and cross-cutting themes such as open government initiatives and GovTech, with case study examples from around the world.

Selected country examples include:

Afghanistanis making inroads to root out corruption, improve the management of its public finance, and make its procurement system more transparent. The country’s National Procurement Authority (NPA) was instrumental in developing a transparent procurement system. The early data and information on procurement processes is accessible to everyone on the NPA website. Robust oversight and monitoring have helped the government save about $270 million.

In Brazil, the World Bank helped develop an Artificial Intelligence System that identifies 225 red-flags of potential fraud in public procurement processes and can help improve expenditures. The system has, so far, led to the identification of hundreds of high-risk cases, firms with high likelihood of being shell companies, linked firms competing against each other, public servants working at the same governmental agency that has executed the contract, among others.

In Kenya, a World Bank judicial project helped establish an advanced data analytics system which is being used to monitor performance of courts, judges, and court personnel. Operating as part of an explicit anticorruption effort, the performance management system is being used in combination with surveys of court users to identify and address corruption risks.

In Mongolia, the World Bank supported the government’s efforts to support open budgets, including the publication of user-friendly Citizen’s Budgets, updating the online portals for accessing expenditure information, and others.

In Serbia, the Bank is helping build a participatory platform to convene stakeholders and identify and follow up on specific actions in order to improve transparency, integrity and good governance to support inclusive growth.

(Video) Here Are 10 Ways to Fight Corruption

In Somalia, the World Bank in collaboration with the IMF and other partners has supported the creation of a joint Somalia Government - international donor advisory group that has been reviewing all substantial government contracts that have not been appropriately awarded, leading to those contracts being halted and reset. In one case, the restructuring and competitive tendering of the largest goods contracts that the state had - for military food supplies – saved over 40%.

In Ukraine, the World Bank worked with other partners to promote the creation of a specialized anticorruption court, and helped create a comprehensive electronic asset declaration system.

Regional and Global initiatives:

The World Bank Group:

  • Provides leadership in creating international transparency standards (Global Initiative on Financial Transparency,Open Contracting Standards, Asset Disclosure Standards) and support for the implementation of open government (through support for theOpen Government Partnership).
  • Actively assists in the implementation of transparency and accountability efforts such asExtractive Industries Transparency Initiative(EITI),Publish What You Pay,Fisheries Transparency, Anti-Money Laundering rules.
  • Strategically supports and engages in international alliances and regional anticorruption forums, such as the International Corruption Hunters Alliance and LAC Regional Parliamentary Network.
  • Engages in international forums on anticorruption including the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group, the Financial Accountability Task Force, and the OECD Anti-Corruption Task Team.
  • Assists countries with the coordination and mutual legal assistance required to identify and return stolen assets, through itsStAR initiativein partnership with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

Helps countries identify possible source of illicit flows and how to address them through National Risk Assessments, completed or ongoing in over 100 countries.

Last Updated:Oct 19, 2021

SELECTED BLOG POSTS

  • Working in partnership is key to fighting corruption
  • Corruption has modernized, so should anticorruption initiatives
  • Can corruption risks be mitigated without hindering governments’ COVID-19 response?
  • Addressing corruption risks in the age of COVID-19: Preventing and managing conflicts of interest in the public sector
(Video) Analyze This! Combating Corruption

FAQs

How can we stop corruption solution? ›

Report corruption
  1. expose corrupt activities and risks that may otherwise remain hidden.
  2. keep the public sector honest, transparent and accountable.
  3. helps stop dishonest practices.
  4. ensure that public sector employees act in the public interest.

Why is it important to stop corruption? ›

Corruption can lead to the theft, wastage, and misuse of scarce resources. It can also entrench elite privilege and inequality, undermining institutions of accountability with lasting consequences.

How do you deal with corruption in the workplace? ›

10 Ways to Reduce Bribery & Corruption Risks
  1. Update anti-bribery & anti-corruption policies. ...
  2. Get the tone right from the top. ...
  3. Embed ABAC principles in corporate culture. ...
  4. Ensure gifts & hospitality meet key criteria. ...
  5. Conduct due diligence on all third parties. ...
  6. Watch out for bribery & corruption red flags.
9 Mar 2022

What is the conclusion of corruption? ›

By addressing corruption through a human rights framework “the social impact of corruption is made visible; this generates awareness in society about the consequences of this scourge and creates new alliances in the fight against corruption” (UNHRC, 2015, p.

How can you help in controlling corruption as a student Brainly? ›

Fighting corruption doesn't have to be serious business. With integrity camps you can get friends and peers together to take on corruption.
...
Loved by our community
  1. FOLLOW THE MONEY. ...
  2. COUNT SUPPLIES. ...
  3. CITIZEN REPORT CARDS. ...
  4. TECH SOLUTIONS. ...
  5. COMICS AND CARTOONS. ...
  6. THEATRE AND DRAMA. ...
  7. BOARD GAMES. ...
  8. SPORTS.
13 Jun 2019

What is corruption in simple words? ›

Corruption is a form of dishonesty or a criminal offense which is undertaken by a person or an organization which is entrusted in a position of authority, in order to acquire illicit benefits or abuse power for one's personal gain.

How does corruption affect the society? ›

Corruption erodes the trust we have in the public sector to act in our best interests. It also wastes our taxes or rates that have been earmarked for important community projects – meaning we have to put up with poor quality services or infrastructure, or we miss out altogether.

What causes corruption? ›

Among the most common causes of corruption are the political and economic environment, professional ethics and morality and, of course, habits, customs, tradition and demography. Its effects on the economy (and also on the wider society) are well researched, yet still not completely.

How can we reduce corruption in education? ›

Anti-corruption strategies in education can make use of (a) transparency-promoting tools, such as ICTs, participatory budgeting, Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and social audits, and (b) accountability-promoting tools, such as performance-based contracting, teacher codes of conduct, community monitoring, ...

What is the role of accountability in fighting corruption? ›

Accountability can reduce corruption and other abuses, assure compliance with standards and procedures, and improve performance and organizational learning [33].

What is types of corruption? ›

The most common types or categories of corruption are supply versus demand corruption, grand versus petty corruption, conventional versus unconventional corruption and public versus private corruption.

What is corruption in the workplace? ›

In a business context, corruption can include false or misleading financial reporting, procurement fraud, embezzlement, bribery, and a range of other acts.

How do you conclude a corruption essay? ›

🔴 Conclusion

In your corruption essay conclusion, you should restate the thesis and summarize your findings. You can also provide recommendations for future research on the topic. Keep it clear and short—it can be one paragraph long. Don't forget your references!

What is corruption essay in English? ›

Essay on Corruption – Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. Most noteworthy, this act compromises the rights and privileges of others. Furthermore, Corruption primarily includes activities like bribery or embezzlement.

What conclusion can be made on the issue of human rights violations to communities? ›

Answer: Human rights are interrelated, indivisible, and universal. No discrimination should be made on the grounds of caste, colour, creed or gender. Implantation of human rights makes it possible for communities to exist in peace and harmony.

How has corruption become a serious problem for Indian democracy explain with examples? ›

It also effects the economic growth of our country. For example: Misuse of powers by government officials for their personal and private gain makes the societal institutions totally corrupt. This evil reduces the oppurtunities for the weaker sections of the society.

What is the greatest single obstacle to the socio economic progress of a country? ›

The World Bank has identified corruption as “the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development.” I would like to look first at the problem of corruption and its impact on poverty.

What role does the Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority play? ›

Functions, duties and powers of the Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority: (1) The Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority may, in accordance with law, conduct, or cause to be conducted, investigations of any abuse of authority committed through corruption by any person holding public ...

What is a sentence for corruption? ›

How to use Corruption in a sentence. He substituted cunning and corruption for violence. Aphrodite and Apollo preserved it from corruption and mutilation. When, therefore, their goodness is gone, their corruption becomes worse than the corruption of either of the other forms of government.

How do you start a corruption speech? ›

I welcome you all present here. I am here to present a speech on Corruption. By corruption, we mean that any dishonest or immoral behavior or activities that result in the gain of some powerful organization or people. Thus, corruption often results in loss to the weaker section of the society or organization.

How does corruption affect development? ›

Not only does corruption affect economic development in terms of economic efficiency and growth, it also affects equitable distribution of resources across the population, increasing income inequalities, undermining the effectiveness of social welfare programmes and ultimately resulting in lower levels of human ...

How does corruption affect human rights? ›

Corruption in the judicial sector damages the right to a fair trial, as corruption erodes the independence, impartiality, and integrity of the judiciary. The lack of independence of judges, prosecutors and lawyers directly harms the right to a fair trial.

How does corruption affect the poor? ›

Corruption increases income inequality and poverty through lower economic growth; biased tax systems favoring the rich and well-connected; poor targeting of social programs; use of wealth by the well-to-do to lobby government for favorable policies that perpetuate inequality in asset ownership; lower social spending; ...

Is corruption a crime? ›

Economic globalization has made corruption a borderless crime. The competitive world of international business can leave companies exposed to bribes and fraudulent financial practices. Corrupt transactions can cross multiple jurisdictions, making the ensuing police investigation both time-consuming and complex.

Which country is first in corruption? ›

Denmark, New Zealand, Finland, Singapore, and Sweden are perceived as the least corrupt nations in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most apparently corrupt are Syria, Somalia (both scoring 13), and South Sudan (11).

What are corruption activities? ›

Corruption can informally be described as the act of unfairly or illegally influencing a decision-making process through the giving or receiving of a benefit (gratification) for the person making the decision or a third party connected to the decision maker.

How does corruption affect public sector? ›

Systemic corruption in the public sector erodes public trust in government institutions, damages policy integrity, and distorts public sector outcomes. It also has a deep-seated negative impact on the public sector in that it leads to a self-perpetuating organizational culture of corruption.

How does corruption affect the education? ›

Corruption has very long lasting consequences because resources are wasted, young people are denied the education they should receive, and those unable to afford bribes are denied access to schooling (both primary and secondary education).

What is corruption in education system? ›

Corruption in the education system is defined as an organized use of public office for private gain, with a significant impact on educational goods and services availability and quality, as well as educational access, quality, and equity. India's educational system is currently beset by inconsistencies.

What is quiet corruption? ›

The term "quiet corruption" is introduced to indicate various types of malpractice of frontline providers (teachers, doctors, and other government officials at the front lines of service provision) that do not involve monetary exchange.

What makes corruption a matter of ethics? ›

Corruption is not limited to mindless or ill-intentioned people. But is also a risk to morally engaged and well-intentioned people. Corrupt environments impose norms, rewards, and punishments. These ensnare individuals in the corruption through loyalty, team mentality, and a sense of surviving via shared fate.

What is the importance of good governance? ›

Good governance has many benefits

Governance helps you to always act in the best interests of the business. More specifically, it can improve the performance of your business, help it become more stable and productive, and unlock new opportunities. It can reduce risks, and enable faster and safer growth.

How does transparency and accountability reduce corruption? ›

Furthermore, transparency allows detection (and reduces the likelihood of corrupt behaviour) because it lowers the information barrier, allowing for scrutiny and monitoring. Transparency also deters corruption by increasing the chances of getting caught.

What are the element of corruption? ›

The active corruption are: (1) unlawfully self-enrich or another person or a corporation that could harm the financial or economic state, (2) the purpose, abusing authority, opportunity or means of their office or position, (3 ) to give a gift or a promise by considering the power or authority of the office or position ...

What are 5 corruption types? ›

Types
  • Bribery.
  • Trading in influence.
  • Patronage.
  • Nepotism and cronyism.
  • Gombeenism and parochialism.
  • Electoral fraud.
  • Embezzlement.
  • Kickbacks.

How is corruption in private sector? ›

Private corruption affects the entire supply chain, as it distorts markets, undermines competition, and increases costs to firms. It prevents a fair and efficient private sector, reduces the quality of products and services, and leads to missed business opportunities (UNODC, 2013b).

How can we stop corruption in India? ›

Disbursement of welfare benefits directly to the citizens under various schemes of the Government in a transparent manner through the Direct Benefit Transfer initiative. Implementation of E-tendering in public procurements. Introduction of e-Governance and simplification of procedure and systems.

What are the 10 causes of corruption? ›

Main Causes of Corruption
  • Low Pay scales and Wages. ...
  • Low Job opportunities. ...
  • Lack of Strict and fast punishments. ...
  • Lack of fear of a bad reputation. ...
  • Lack of Public Unity. ...
  • Lack of transparency in affairs and deals. ...
  • Lack of Independent detective agency. ...
  • Lack of state funding for elections.
13 Jul 2022

What is corruption and anti corruption? ›

Anti-corruption (or anticorruption) comprises activities that oppose or inhibit corruption. Just as corruption takes many forms, anti-corruption efforts vary in scope and in strategy. A general distinction between preventive and reactive measures is sometimes drawn.

What is bribery and corruption? ›

Corruption is dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. Bribery is offering, giving or receiving anything of value with the intention of inducing a person to act or to reward a person for having acted.

Is the government doing enough to ensure that human rights are protected? ›

The Government has all the power and infrastructure such as the constitution, the judiciary, the authority, etc. The Government in India exists taking all the steps to defend human rights. Wherever any violation has occurred, the Government has brought action and the offenders were brought to justice.

What conclusions and recommendations can you make on the human rights violations to government? ›

1-Foremost thing that government can do is the legislation to control the human rights violation and this law should be applicable on all the people belong to any community. Government also make human rights violation issue a part of their policy so that every government could understand before hand.

What conclusions and recommendations can you make on the issue of human trafficking to communities Brainly? ›

Answer: The recommendations for the government on human trafficking are as follows. (1) Laws must be made more stringent so that traffickers do not get away easily. (2) Increased participation from social groups should be solicited with more powers to them for handling cases.

What are the 10 causes of corruption? ›

Main Causes of Corruption
  • Low Pay scales and Wages. ...
  • Low Job opportunities. ...
  • Lack of Strict and fast punishments. ...
  • Lack of fear of a bad reputation. ...
  • Lack of Public Unity. ...
  • Lack of transparency in affairs and deals. ...
  • Lack of Independent detective agency. ...
  • Lack of state funding for elections.
13 Jul 2022

How do you stop the spread of corruption in Terraria? ›

Digging Holes To Stop Corruption And Crimson Spreading
  1. The system is simple: dig tunnels that entirely encase your Corruption or Crimson biomes before you defeat the Wall of Flesh.
  2. Alternatively, you can dig tunnels that surround your base.
15 Jun 2022

How do you get rid of corruption in Terraria? ›

The player can remove corrupt areas by using Purification Powder or turn them into Hallowed areas with Holy Water. The Clentaminator can be used (with purchased solutions) to change blocks into the normal pure forest, the Hallow, the Crimson, or the Corruption.

What is the role of accountability in fighting corruption? ›

Accountability can reduce corruption and other abuses, assure compliance with standards and procedures, and improve performance and organizational learning [33].

How does corruption affect the society? ›

Corruption erodes the trust we have in the public sector to act in our best interests. It also wastes our taxes or rates that have been earmarked for important community projects – meaning we have to put up with poor quality services or infrastructure, or we miss out altogether.

What is the main reason of corruption? ›

Corruption usually occurs because some individuals are willing to use illicit means to maximise personal or corporate gain. However, in order for these individuals to become involved in corrupt activity, circumstances must exist which do not prevent or discourage them from doing so.

What are the 3 types of corruption? ›

The most common types or categories of corruption are supply versus demand corruption, grand versus petty corruption, conventional versus unconventional corruption and public versus private corruption.

Can you get 0 corruption Terraria? ›

If corruption remains there you will never be able to fully eradicate it - this is probably the source of the interminable 1% many endgame players experience.

Do sunflowers stop The Corruption? ›

Sunflowers provide the following functions: The two tiles directly underneath them cannot become Corrupted, Crimsoned, or Hallowed, even in Hardmode. In some cases, this can prevent Corrupted and Crimson grass from spreading sideways. Each Sunflower decreases an area's total Corruption rating by 5 tiles.

How do you clean up corruption? ›

Five Tips For Cleaning Up Corruption
  1. Strengthen Public Sector Accountability. ...
  2. Ensure Transparent, Competitive Public Procurement. ...
  3. Investigate And Prosecute Corruption. ...
  4. Require Transparent Political Party Financing. ...
  5. Ensure Access To Information.
7 Apr 2014

What makes corruption a matter of ethics? ›

Corruption is not limited to mindless or ill-intentioned people. But is also a risk to morally engaged and well-intentioned people. Corrupt environments impose norms, rewards, and punishments. These ensnare individuals in the corruption through loyalty, team mentality, and a sense of surviving via shared fate.

What is the importance of good governance? ›

Good governance has many benefits

Governance helps you to always act in the best interests of the business. More specifically, it can improve the performance of your business, help it become more stable and productive, and unlock new opportunities. It can reduce risks, and enable faster and safer growth.

How does transparency and accountability reduce corruption? ›

Furthermore, transparency allows detection (and reduces the likelihood of corrupt behaviour) because it lowers the information barrier, allowing for scrutiny and monitoring. Transparency also deters corruption by increasing the chances of getting caught.

Videos

1. TAP-Plus: Combating corruption in the natural resource value chain
(Brookings Institution)
2. Combating corruption to drive democratic renewal
(Brookings Institution)
3. Combating Corruption: The Importance of Robust Due Diligence
(Pearl Initiative)
4. OSCEPA conference on “Combating Corruption, Defending Democracy: the Role of National Parliaments”
(OSCE Parliamentary Assembly)
5. Claudia Dumas '81: Combating Corruption
(WellesleyCollege)
6. Combating corruption in the engineering and construction sector
(FIDIC Media)
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